Are corporations unfairly double taxed?
Is it not unfair and a kind of “double jeopardy” for the government to tax both a corporations’ profits and then also the dividends paid out by the corporation to its shareholders?
What is this "double jeopardy" bit? Government taxes (1) property, (2) income and (3) expenditure. Each of these taxes has complex effects, positive and negative from various perspectives. Those who don’t want a particular tax invent as many arguments as possible for why that tax is "bad for the economy.” Those who want a particular tax do the opposite. This encourages the kind of non-dialectical, simplistic thinking so widespread in discussing economic issues.
Individuals who own property and earn income and make expenditures then become vulnerable to all three kinds of taxes; individuals who do any two of the three run comparable risks etc. Since everyone who earns income also expends it and thereby gets taxed twice - what you call "double jeopardy" is nearly universal. Here are some more examples: if you own a house, you pay local property tax on the house, and if you rent rooms in that house, you also pay income tax on the rental income. Double jeopardy? If the Supreme Court just reaffirmed that corporations are individuals why should they not pay taxes on their profits as individuals?
The only people who avoid what you call "double jeopardy" are the owners of property in the form of stocks and bonds (as opposed to land, houses, cars and boats). There is no general property tax on stocks and bonds in the US of any significance and none at all for the vast majority of US citizens. Now there's a real tax issue! Share-owners pay only the reduced income tax rate on dividends and capital gains and also income tax on interest. They pay no property tax. This is interesting since there is no better justification for exempting stocks and bonds from property taxes than for exempting any and all other kinds of taxes. Moreover, a very modest graduated tax on stock and bond property in the US would raise huge sums of money for the federal government from - guess who? - those most able to pay.